Combined immunotherapy in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma
Doc. MUDr. Tomáš Büchler, Ph.D.
Onkologická klinika 1. LF UK a Thomayerovy nemocnice, Praha
New findings in the pathogenesis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) led to the development of VEGF and mTOR pathway inhibitors over the last 20 years. Despite the prolongation of survival achieved with targeted treatment, almost all patients eventually develop resistance. Only new therapeutic strategies can result in a further substantial improvement in survival, or even achieve cure in patients with mRCC. Nivolumab, an inhibitor of the PD-1 immune checkpoint, was the first of the novel immunological agents to be successfully tested in a randomised trial. Regimens in which PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitors are combined with other immunological drugs or tyrosine kinase inhibitors of angiogenesis are currrently being tested in preclinical and clinical studies seeking to build on the success of nivolumab.
renal cell carcinoma, immunotherapy, angiogenesis, combined regimens
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