Morphology, staging, prognostic and predictive factors of colorectal carcinoma – the pathologist’s point of view


MUDr. Kateřina Kamarádová

Fingerlandův ústav patologie LF UK a FN Hradec Králové



Colorectal carcinoma is morphologically, phenotypically and genetically hererogeneous disease. Accurate evaluation of the extent of the bowel, lymph nodes and other organs (pathological and clinical staging) is necessary for a selection of adequate treatment options according to the valid guidelines. Currently, there is a focus on finding and evaluation parameters and markers defining biological behavior of colorectal carcinoma or influencing treatment response of the tumor (prognostic and predictive factors). These factors include morphological, imunophenotypical and molecular factors concerning the tumor itself as well as its non-neoplastic microenvironment. The aim of the article is to review the standardly used as well as potentially new factors underlining the heterogeneity of colorectal carcinoma but also playing role in patient treatment and prognosis stratification.



colorectal carcinoma, grading, staging, histologic subtype, pathology, molecular characteristics, prognostic factors, predictive factors



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